Ingredient Substitutions (With Substitution Recommendations)

Today I want to discuss substitutions in baking.  I get lots of questions about how to substitute for various ingredients that people can’t or don’t want to use.  I am happy to help when I can, but I wanted to have a little chat about what substitutes can and cannot do.

First and foremost: substitutes are what they sound like–they are substituting for the preferred item.  So, most of the time they are not going to behave, taste, or feel EXACTLY like the preferred ingredients.  If they did the same exact job in the same exact way, they wouldn’t be substitutes–they would be the preferred thing.  This blog is already all about a big substitution: gluten-free flour used in the place of wheat flour for baking.

It takes time to develop a recipe and I go the extra mile to make sure that it is the best it can be.  And part of this development process is choosing the ingredients carefully.  Therefore, I do get frustrated when, for example, someone asks me for ideas on an egg substitute in a recipe full of eggs–and then that person comes back to me complaining that the egg substitute didn’t act or taste exactly like an egg.  To which I say, “Of course not.  It isn’t an egg.”

I also think that people tend to forget that there are many different approaches to gluten-free baking.  My type of gluten-free baking has the goal of mimicking classic wheat baking.  It’s not vegan, it’s not whole grain, it’s not sugar-free, it’s not paleo.  All of these approaches to gluten-free baking are valid and good, but they are quite different from each other.   So, if you use substitutes in my recipes with the goal of making them sugar-free or paleo or whole grain or dairy-free or whatever, you are not going to end up with a cookie that tastes the same as the one I created.  In addition, the substitute ingredients you use may or may not behave the same or work well in the recipes.

Below I have listed the ingredients that I have used as substitutes for various ingredients.  If the substitution is not listed, then I haven’t tried it and therefore, I can’t recommend for or against it.  Also, please realize that you may need to do some experimentation on your own to find out what substitutes you like best.


Butter is an amazing ingredient in baking.  It tastes good and has a good mouth-feel.  Luckily, there are a zillion butter substitutes out there.  Margarine is the most common substitute.  My family can’t eat soy because Girlfriend is allergic to soy.  Also, hydrogenated margarines are really (really) bad for you, so I avoid hydrogenated oils.  Up until recently, my preferred butter substitute was Earth Balance Soy-Free Butter Spread.  They changed their recipe in spring 2013 which changed the taste–and I’m not that keen on it.

I have been experimenting with using a half and half mixture of Earth Balance Soy-Free Butter Spread and Omega Nutrition Coconut Oil in my recipes.  So far, I like the results.  The taste is neutral, which I like.  Up until now I haven’t been a fan of using coconut oil because it had a strong coconut taste.  I don’t mind the taste, but coconut isn’t the taste that I want in all of my recipes.  But, companies are now aware of this issue and are creating coconut oils that are much less “coconutty” than before.

Be aware that  butter replacers are softer than butter at room temperature.  This means that they melt at a lower temperature than butter.  Therefore, if you use it for pie crust or something else you need to use cold fat for, you need to monitor the temperature a bit more.  In addition, butter replacers have more water in them, so your pie crust will probably need less water.

It is usually best not to substitute a liquid oil for butter in a pastry recipe.  Butter is solid at room temperature, so if a pastry recipe (like pie) calls for butter, you need to use something else that is also solid at room temperature.  Do not use ghee in pie crust or any other pastry recipe–pastry needs a hard fat.

Use volume measurements to make substitutions, not weight: Because of the sometimes large differences in weight between butter, shortening, and butter replacers, I have found that it is best to substitute by volume versus weight.


Use the milk alternative of choice.  Rice milk is fairly thin and watery, so it’s probably my least favorite milk to use in the place of cow milk.  Currently, my favorite is coconut milk.

Evaporated Milk

Place 4 cups of gluten-free milk alternative in a wide pan over low heat. Simmer for about 2 hours, stirring every so often, until it has reduced to 1 1/2 cups. Make sure not to burn the bottom–just barely simmering is what you want. Once reduced, remove from heat to cool before using. You can also do this ahead of time and store in a sealed container in the refrigerator. Be sure to shake/mix well before using.


For 1 cup of buttermilk: place 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar or distilled white vinegar into a cup measure and pour in your milk alternative until it reaches the 1 cup line.  Whisk to combine.  It’s OK if the milk curdles (separates)–it will still work well.

Sour Cream

Use a non-dairy sour cream alternative.  Or make your own–Google “non-dairy sour cream.” Or, use non-dairy yogurt.

Cream Cheese

Use a non-dairy cream cheese alternative.  Or make your own–Google “non-dairy cream cheese.”

Ricotta Cheese

Use a non-dairy ricotta cheese alternative.  Or make you own–Google “non-dairy ricotta cheese.”


Eggs are one of the most difficult things to replace in baking.  Eggs provide structure to baked items in addition to binding.  Without eggs, your baked items are going to be flatter than they would be with eggs.  If you are sensitive to chicken eggs, I would recommend asking your doctor if s/he would recommend that you try duck eggs.  Duck eggs are a terrific substitute for chicken eggs if you can tolerate them, and they are bigger than most chicken eggs–so they naturally replace the “extra-large egg” I recommend in most of my recipes.

If you cannot tolerate duck eggs, my next preferred overall egg substitute is ground flax seeds mixed with hot water.  This creates a flax seed gel that acts as a binder and a moisture source in the place of eggs.  For 1 extra-large egg, I recommend placing 1 TBL of ground flax seeds in a glass cup measure and add hot water until it reaches the 1/4 cup line.   Whisk together and then let sit for 20 minutes in order to make a gel.  Whisk frequently during this time to make sure the gel comes together.  Then use this gel as you would the eggs–you can beat it with your mixer.  If you are using this in a recipe that requires the ingredients to be cold, refrigerate before using.

This will NOT work for a meringue or for a sponge cake or pâte à choux (which rely on eggs for the leavening), but it will substitute for eggs in many regular baked items.  The flax will provide a bit of a nutty flavor, so be prepared for that.  I know there are many other substitutes, but this the one I use if I need an egg substitute.

If your recipe turns out flatter than you want it to be using the flax seed egg substitute, you can also add extra baking powder (not baking soda) to the recipe.  I would add 1 teaspoon to start with and see if this helps with the rise.  The resulting baked item is still not going to be quite as fluffy as it would have been if you used eggs.


I have already provided a gluten-free flour substitution for wheat flour in the form of my Jeanne’s Gluten-Free All-Purpose Flour Mix. And yet, people ask me for substitutes for the substitutes.  Please be aware that my mix is truly one of the reasons my recipes work so well.  And therefore, be aware that substituting flours for the flours in my mix will give the mix a different taste and a bit of a different texture.  Please be aware that you should substitute by volume and not weight due to the differing densities of each flour.  Here’s what I recommend if you must use substitutes:

Flour Mix Substitutions
1 1/4 cups Brown rice flour: substitute 1 1/4 cups Sorghum flour
1 1/4 cups White rice flour: substitute 1 1/4 cups Millet flour
1 cup Sweet rice (also know as glutinous rice) flour: substitute 1 cup Potato Flour (not starch)
1 cup Tapioca flour: substitute 1 cup Potato Starch (not flour)

NOTE: if you don’t like or do want to use the above substitutions, please don’t ask me for other ideas.  These are what I recommend for substitutes.

Availability: all of these flours are available online.  I get my flours from Bob’s Red Mill or from Authentic Foods.  If these aren’t available in your town, you can order them online.  These products are available on Amazon–and if you have Amazon Prime, the shipping is free.  Many are also available at stores like Whole Foods, co-ops, health food stores, and increasingly, your neighborhood grocery store. It is imperative to get flours that are labelled “gluten-free.”  If something isn’t labelled “gluten-free,” there is a chance that it is cross-contaminated with gluten.  If you are celiac or wheat allergic, this is not acceptable.

Flours from bulk bins: flours from bulk bins may be cheaper than packaged flours, but there is a high probability that they are cross contaminated with gluten-containing items in the bulk bins.  If you are celiac or wheat allergic, you should not use flour from bulk bins.

Asian stores: Many of the flours available at Asian stores aren’t labeled gluten-free.   This means that they may or may not be cross-contaminated with gluten-containing ingredients.  If you want to use them, you will need to contact the company directly to find out what the cross-contamination status is.

Sugar (Granulated)

Substituting for sugar is tough for baking.  Sugar does so many things in baking.  It provides sweetness, of course.  It also gives a good mouth-feel to your baked goods.  It’s a preservative, so it allows for your baked items to stay good for a few days.  It attracts water, which is why the tops of muffins get a little gummy after awhile.  But it also keeps baked goods moist inside.  I pretty much bake with sugar.  I don’t really have any experience with sugar replacers like Splenda, so I can’t really recommend any.  The chemistry of sugar replacers is complicated and creates a chain effect of issues throughout the baking process.  Below is my experience with the following natural sugars:

Maple sugar is a nice alternative to cane sugar.  It behaves the same as cane sugar, but will add a slight maple taste to baked items.

Palm sugar is another nice alternative to cane sugar.  It comes in many forms.  The granulated form can be used in baked goods.

Honey and agave are challenging to use in the place of sugar in baked goods.  They are a bit sweeter than cane sugar and they are liquid.  So, when you use them to substitute for cane sugar in a recipe, you need to adjust for sweetness and for liquidity–meaning you will have to reduce other liquids in your recipe.

I don’t really have any single ratio for how to use honey or agave as a substitute for sugar in recipes–you will need to do your own experimentation for it.  Also, check the comments for this post: some of my readers have included their ideas for how to use these in the place of sugar.

How to use Splenda (or other sugar substitutes): I don’t bake with these kinds of substitutes.  I would recommend using a Google search for this.  See Peter Reinhart’s book below for info on how to use Splenda.

Sugar (Powdered/Confectioners)

In a blender or a food processor, grind until powdery 1 1/2 cups of granulated sugar to 1 tablespoon of cornstarch or tapioca flour/starch.


Yeast is a really tough thing to substitute for.  Because it is a living thing (a fungus of sorts), it has more staying power than any of the other leaveners (baking soda, baking powder, steam).  So, I really do not recommend that you try to substitute for yeast unless you are allergic to it.  I haven’t done any experiments with the suggestions in the following link (as of 1/25/14), but I trust this site and therefore think that their recommendations are worth a shot:

Modernist Pantry Blog (Fit Day) on Yeast Substitutes

Please note that when using their suggestions for baking powder or baking soda, you do not need to let the bread rise. If you try these suggestions in my recipes, let me know how it goes.

Xanthan Gum and Other Gums and Pectin

Before posting a question or comment on xanthan gum or the other gluten replacers, please check out my post on Gluten-Replacers.  Your issue might be addressed there.

I use xanthan gum as the “gluten-replacer” in my baking.  I truly feel it is the best product available for creating baked items that taste and feel like their wheat counterparts.  It not only has the binding and structure building properties of gluten, it is the most elastic of the gluten replacers.  And you only need to use a tiny amount of it per cup of gluten-free flour (about a 1/4 teaspoon).

There is a lot of misinformation going around about xanthan gum.  So much so that it is hard to talk to many people rationally about it.  Xanthan gum is the resulting product when the xanthomanoas campetris bacteria is grown on a sugar medium.  Often that sugar medium is corn, but it can also be tapioca or even wheat.  According to the food scientists that I’ve spoken with, xanthan gum should not contain any of the growth medium–corn, tapioca, or wheat.  It should be completely processed out.  It’s kind of like when you eat an apple–if you were tested, you wouldn’t test as containing apple because your body has converted it into skin and organs and blood, etc.  That said, if you are allergic to the growing medium of the xanthan gum (usually corn), then I would ask your doctor if s/he recommends that you eat it.

There is no truly good substitute for xanthan gum in the kind of baking I do (to mimic the taste and feel of wheat baking).  Some people use guar gum (from the guar plant), but I find that it’s not quite elastic enough for my purposes.

Other folks use flax seeds, chia seeds, and psyllium husks as gluten substitutes.  In my experience, these don’t behave in the way I want my gluten replacer to behave. And they add a significant taste to baked goods. In the experiments I’ve done with the seeds, they have created a good looking product, but the product is gummy (because you have to use a relatively large amount of the seeds for them to work well), and then after a day or two, the product is crumbly in a gummy way (yes, it’s weird).

Also, I can’t use flax, psyllium, or chia in my baking because they are all strong laxatives and you need to use a relatively large amount of them in baked goods (several tablespoons) to get the desired result.  They wreak havoc on my body.  As someone whose digestive system is already pretty loose (ahem), the last thing I need is more laxatives in my diet.

This is all to say that I don’t really have (at this point) any useful advice for substituting seeds for the gums.  Please use the below resources for information on how to do that.  In addition, I don’t have any advice on how to use pectin in the place of gums.

ADDED 12/13/12: I have heard that some people have tried to use pectin and gelatin as their gluten-replacers.  These don’t work that well because they are binders but not really structure builders.  And they aren’t elastic the way you need them to be.  So, they are better as egg replacers from what I can tell.


Here are a few resources and blogs (in no particular order) to check out that can help you with many of the substitutions mentioned here. Please note that this list is not in any way exhaustive.  Please let me know if you have other books and sites that you have found particularly helpful for the substitution process:

Elana Amsterdam: Elana’s Pantry
-Elana is a genius with baking dairy-free with almond flour, coconut flour, natural sugar substitutes, and no gums.  She has written two cookbooks that are excellent:

The Gluten-Free Almond Flour Cookbook
Gluten-Free Cupcakes: 50 Irresistible Recipes Made with Almond and Coconut Flour

Karen Morgan: Blackbird Bakery
-Karen is a whiz at gluten-free baking with guar gum.  And her book is awesome:

Blackbird Bakery Gluten-Free

Peter Reinhart and Denene Wallace
-Peter Reinhart is one of my baking gods. I have several of his wheat bread baking books (they are must-haves) and I have learned a lot from them. He is a wheat baker, but has found that gluten-free baking is a nice break for his body. I had the honor of meeting him one year at the International Association of Culinary Professionals conference after a baking session he taught. He co-wrote (with Denene Wallace) a gluten-free, grain-free, and sugar-free baking book. I have a copy of the book and it looks fabulous. I’m guessing it will become a classic on the grain-free and sugar-free baking shelf:

The Joy of Gluten-Free, Sugar-Free Baking: 80 Low-Carb Recipes that Offer Solutions for Celiac Disease, Diabetes, and Weight Loss

The following blogs are excellent sources for cooking and baking gluten-free and other other-allergens-free:

Silvana Nardone does a great job with dairy-free on top of gluten-free: Silvana’s Kitchen

Karina Allrich: Gluten-Free Goddess

Shirley Braden: Gluten-Free Easily

Heidi Kelly: Adventures of a Gluten-Free Mom

Kim Maes: Cook it Allergy Free
-Kim also has developed an excellent iPhone/iPad app to help you with the substitution process.

Nancy: The Sensitive Pantry

(As of 7/30/15)



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  1. HawkeyeHarris says

    not everyone can eat sugar or would want to eat the splenda you seem to want to push onto ppl. i use stevia extract in all my recipes that call for a sweetener. i don’t need or desire luxury foods, i just want foods that taste good and are good for me, so everything i make is simple or of my own creation.

    • says

      Hawkeye: I’m not sure what you’re talking about. I don’t use Splenda, nor do I recommend it. I am wondering if you’re commenting on the right blog?

  2. Auggy says

    I’ve read some interesting things about potato starch being a replacement for xanthan gum. Have you noticed how gummy mashed potatoes get if you overbeat them? Unfortunately I haven’t found any other information about how to effectively capture that gumminess. I’ve had some success with beating a boiled potato until it’s gummy and adding it to a cupcake recipe. Also for people looking for potato flour, you can either use potato flakes as is or just grind them yourself in a blender to make potato flour. I’m curious if adding hot water or milk to potato flour and then beating it would produce a similar gummy result that could serve as a xanthan gum replacement.

    • says

      Auggy: Yeah, potato starch is gummy–but it’s more in line with the gumminess that comes with sweet rice flour (aka, glutinous rice flour). Also, don’t forget that gluten performs many functions (not just binding) and xanthan gum comes closest to mimicking those functions. Check out my Gluten-Replacers article for more info.

  3. Katya says

    I just wanted to say a HUGE THANK YOU for this incredibly informative page, and for your wonderful Gluten Free flour recipe. I’ve been GF for years, and on and off experimented with baking, but always with little knowledge of how to truly mimic the baking i grew up loving, so I use trial and error, with a lot getting thrown in the bin along the way, and was getting fed up with Almond Flour recipe fad going around, and their heavy texture! But now I feel better equipped to experiment with a deeper understanding of how these ingredient should behave in a bake. And am TRULEY excited to have a homemade flour thats just for me! First bakes in the oven now – excited / nervous to see how it turns out with your flour! Thank you xx

  4. Chris says

    Thank you for all of the information you’ve provided here! In addition to my wheat allergy, I have dairy and yeast intolerances, so I have to use a lot of substitutions. I made bread using a recipe from the the CIA’s Gluten-Free Baking cookbook. I followed their recommendations for preparing the bread and used the lemon juice and baking soda substitution for yeast. My result was not the prettiest, but it did taste pretty darned good considering all of the substitutions:

  5. Cami John says

    I have been trying several baking recipes and find they don’t quite turn out as described in the cook books. I suspect there might be an altitude factor involved. We live in Colorado. Would you know how to tweak the recipes for high altitude?

  6. Brenda Brunner says

    I am so happy I found your site!
    I am new to the gluten free concept. My husband has very high triglycerides so we are trying to cut out wheat and processed sugars and other processed foods.
    I didn’t get to look at all of your recipes but I will. I am hoping you have some homemade gluten free pasta recipes.
    I noticed you said that you aren’t very familiar with substituting honey for sugar in baked goods, so I will share what worked well for me many years ago. I didn’t want to trust my memory to type everything in correctly, so I found this, which is exactly what I used to do..

    How to Substitute Sweeteners

    1.  Honey and maple syrup are sweeter than sugar, so use less (about 1/2 – 3/4 cup) for each cup of sugar.
    2.  When substituting a liquid for a granulated sweetener (e.g. using honey when the recipe calls for sucanat or brown sugar), for every 1 cup of honey, subtract 1/4 cup of liquid from the recipe(that means also, for every 1/4 cup of honey, subtract 1 Tbsp of liquid).
    3.  The converse is then, when substituting a granulated for a liquid sweetener (e.g. using sucanat or coconut sugar when the recipe calls for maple syrup or honey), for every 1 cup of sweetener, add 1/4 cup of liquid from the recipe (that means also, for every 1/4 cup of honey, add 1 Tbsp of liquid).
    4.  If baking with honey or maple syrup, reduce the oven temperature by 25 degrees Fahrenheit, since maple syrup and honey will tend to caramelize and burn faster than granulated sweeteners.
    5.  Since maple syrup and honey are somewhat acidic, when baking, you will need to add 1/4 – 1/2 tsp baking soda per cup of honey or maple syrup to the batter so it will rise.
    6.  If you’d like to use stevia in your baking and cooking, check out Stevia-What It Is and How to Use It for helpful tips.
    I hope you don’t mind my sharing this.
    I hope you will find it useful in helping others.
    Thank you so much for all of your research!

  7. Lauren Beach says

    Wonderful blog! I just discovered that I am extremely sensitive to tapioca flour. As someone that adores gluten/dairy/soy free baking, I am at a loss! Can you recommend any substitute for tapioca?

    Thank you!

  8. Kylie says

    Hi, thank you so much for this fantastic resource! I have been doing an elimination diet for health reasons ( and have found that wheat is a problem. Problem is, so is corn and potato and just about all the commercial flour mixes contain at least one of these ingredients! Hence, your information is a great find. May I ask about yet another substitution please?! (Sorry, it seems as if I’m picking fault with the obviously excellent starting recipe lol!). Vinegar and olive oil are not allowed on the elimination diet so my questions are: can canola oil be used instead of olive oil? Also, can the vinegar be omitted or what could be used instead do you think? Many thanks!

    • says

      Kylie: I’m glad this blog is helpful. And yes: you can substitute other oil for olive oil and I would substitute lemon juice for the vinegar (let me know if you can’t eat lemon juice). Happy baking!

  9. PAULA W says

    your flour mix does not call for Cornstarch. That’s GREAT. Most bread mixes call for cornstarch, can I use arrowroot, potato, or tapioca starch instead of cornstarch. I can not do wheat, soy or corn. Please help. I am experimenting Bread Recipes.

    • says

      Paula: Yes, you can substitute potato, tapioca, or arrowroot for cornstarch. Be careful with arrowroot, though–I have found that it seems to go bad in record time. If it smells or tastes metallic, it’s gone bad.

  10. Faye says

    Is there anything I can substitute for yeast in the sandwich bread recipe? My sister is allergic to it. Sounds fabulous otherwise!

  11. Layna says

    I loved reading this – very informative! You did a lot of research for us in this. It is appreciated. I am allergic to eggs.. so I just don’t use them in my baking, I have only found a few things that i cant substitute them in (i don’t eat or make it then, like brownies) But was worried about using egg replacer’s – they have TAPIOCA FLOUR/starch in there – doesn’t tapioca flour have egg powder in it?? or ? I was afraid to use it, several people have given me some in the recent yrs. Egg allergies are not to have tapioca. or is that just the puddings??? If someone knows – would love to have more info on that.

    • says

      Layna: Tapioca starch (aka, flour–same thing) is just that–tapioca. If an egg-replacer contains tapioca starch, the tapioca starch doesn’t contain egg. The other ingredients might be egg, but not that.

    • says

      Layna, I think you should be able to substitute yogurt for eggs, in brownies. You would have to play around with it to get it right. You would need to use a full fat yogurt. If you are not averse to soy, silken tofu is also useful.

      Tapioca flour is made from the root of the cassava plant. It has no eggs.

  12. Carol says

    This is for bakingbob who wanted a G-F bagel recipe. I wrote a reply somewhere here, my computer crashed and now I can’t find just where I read Bob’s request. Carol Fenster’s “Wheat-Free Recipes & Menus” has a bagel recipe which she says is surprisingly easy. So, Bob, hope you see this and good luck! (I haven’t tried them.)

  13. Maria says

    Dear Jeanne,
    Love the post. I have used xanthan gum and guar gum. I am currently working with the Expandex, a version of xanthan gum that has a greater lifting and binding quality than the original product.
    Slightly off topic – substitute teachers are not necessarily substitutes because we cannot be “real teachers”. We are retired teachers or those who choose not to stay in one classroom every day.
    Anyway, love the baking blog! Thanks for all the good advice.

    • says

      Maria: Yes! I need to do some experimentation with Expandex. Also, please know that I it wasn’t my intention to criticize substitute teachers. I was more trying to get across the concept that a substitute teacher is there to teach in a pinch. They haven’t been the ones to develop that particular class curriculum, etc. I need to work on that analogy a bit to make it better, I think…:) Thanks for the note.

      • Carol says

        Thanks for all the work you put into G-F baking! I agree with Maria though and glad you are willing to rethink the substitute teacher analogy. Having been a classroom teacher and later a sub when my children were older, I know the difference and how difficult subbing can be. How about a comparison with something mechanical like using a coat hanger when you don’t have the right part.

  14. Sarah says

    Thanks for the great article. When I use xanthan gum in recipes it just doesn’t sit right in my stomach, so I learnt about using other substitutes and discovered that I could use guar gum or chia seeds. Although guar gum doesn’t always work that best for baking – depends on the application. however I did find some other gum substitutes here if that helps others.

  15. Karolina says


    how can I replace active dried yeast with pressed yeast? In most recipes, there is 2tablespoons of active dried yeast so how much of the pressed one should I use?

    Thank you a lot!

    • says

      Karoline: I haven’t used fresh yeast on most of my recipes, so I can’t say how it will behave. But I think using about 39 g of fresh yeast in the place of 2 tablespoons of active dry should be a good start.

  16. cris says

    I have read your blog I need to substitute Sweet rice flour as can not find it in Australia at the moment and I have only found potato starch not flour
    I did come across red rice flour will this be ok

    many thanks cris :)

    • says

      Cris: I would recommend one of two options: first, you can buy sweet (also known as glutinous) rice at the store and trying grinding it yourself into a flour (with a blender or a food processor). Or you can try a combo of half and half tapioca flour and white rice flour in the place of the amount of sweet rice flour. Let me know what you do and how it goes!

  17. says

    This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger.

    I have joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking
    more of your great post. Also, I have shared your site in my social networks!

  18. Dionne says

    I am just starting a gluten free diet for my 3 yr old. Need clarification on your all purpose flour mix. I found all of the ingredients except one at my local organic store. However, I found Bob’s Red Mill sweet white rice flour, but not the separate white rice flour. Should I use two cups of the “sweet white rice flour” to your flour blend or should I continue to search for the “white rice flour”?

    • says

      Dionne: Hm, that’s interesting. Most people have problems find the the sweet rice flour, not the white rice flour. If you can’t find the white rice flour, add more brown rice flour (not sweet rice flour) in the place of it. It will be a little bit more gritty but should be OK. Also, you can order flours online.

  19. Lowen Gartner says

    I am on a diet where egg whites are OK and egg yolks are not. When a whole egg is called for, is there something else I can use for that?

    I get real egg whites from Costco. tx

    • says

      Lowen: The egg yolk provides fat and moisture. What I would do is use 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil per egg. And then use 3 tablespoons of egg whites per egg.

      • Lowen Gartner says

        Earlier you mentioned that I could substitute for an egg in baking, 1 table spoon of oil and 3 tablespoons of egg white.

        I have been looking for a substitute for an egg yolk in making standard mayonnaise recipes and keep coming upon lecithin granules.

        Do you have any suggestions about what to substitute into a standard mayo recipe for an egg yolk (not tofu mayo recipe, etc.)?

        Have you tried using lecithin granules along with some oil and egg whites in baking?

        • says

          Lowen: I haven’t used lecithin granules at all, so I can’t be of any help with using those. I do know about a technique for making milk mayonnaise–which eliminates the need for eggs altogether. You might want to try that. I’ve done it and it works well.

  20. Igne says

    Hi, I just discovered your website and can’t wait to try this flour mix. So far I’ve been using various premade mixes (and some of them are quite good), I still haven’t been able to find anything close to the regular flour. Here’s hoping this will change!
    I’ve never heard of sweet rice flour before, however I’ve got a pack f Thai rice flour which is very starchy and sticky, I’m thus wondering whether this is the same type of flour just under a different name?

  21. Nancy Coyne says

    We make Paintbrush Cookies with the grandchildren at Christmas. The receipt calls for 1/3 cup soft shortening, 1/3 cup sugar, 1 egg, 2/3 cup honey, 1 teaspoon vanilla (mix thoroughly), stir in 2-3/4 cups sifted Gold Medal Flour, 1 teaspoon soda, 1 teaspoon salt (Chill).
    Can I substitute your gf flour for Gold Medal Flour. Will the grandchildren notice the difference?

  22. Kadee says

    what an awesome post – easy to read and easy to find what you need to substitute. Genius idea for a post Jeanne :)

  23. Linda J-H says

    Great post Jeanne! Bravo!

    I always enjoy reading your blog and the information that you give us goes a long way to making gluten-free baking go from scrunched up noses and no thank you (or yuck) to rave reviews and I can’t believe this is gluten free. I’ll just say it: You are a genius in the gluten-free kitchen.

  24. Doris says

    Nancy keep up the good work. Even though I have only been diagnosed as gluten intolerant since March 2010, I have done all my own baking since that first week. Yes it was alot of experimentation. And like you found what worked for me. I started with Annalise Roberts Baking Classics for my flour mix and have since found a better mix to use. Gluten free baking is ,and from what i read from other bloggers, one big experiment . We each need to find out what our bodies tolerate and work with that knowledge. And yes I agree that substitutes are just that. A great site for flour conversions is its a downloadable pdf file and I printed a copy and leave it in front of my recipe binder for easy reference.

  25. Kelly says

    And I love how you take the time to help troubleshoot when those of us who need to substitute use your recipes, even though it has to be really annoying. Especially for recipes where technique is nearly as important as the exact ingredients. Pie crust comes to mind. :-) I mean, not only are there allergic folks who have to substitute, some folks live in countries where some ingredients just aren’t available. (I can’t get Earth Balance, xanthan gum, sorghum flour, or finely ground almond flour in Germany. But I can get sunflower seed flour!) I think you are amazingly patient and generous to even address the substitution questions. THANK YOU!

  26. says

    I thank you for this post, I used your blueberry honey muffins yesterday, however, i subbed the blueberries for orange zest and craisins. I used just a little orange juice, and I normally use Bob’s Red Mill gluten free all purpose flour when I bake or cook.

    The muffins were beautiful out of the oven, with tops high and all!!!

    I was so pleased. I normally dont go gluten free myself, but my mother is strictly off of wheat products and I like to surprise her every so often.
    However, after a few minutes, the beautifully shaped muffins deflated :(

    I understand also that you bake from a higher altitude, I am in the Bahamas, but I still wonder about my muffins, should i have turned off the oven and left them in prior to taking them out?

    • admin says

      Jamilah: I’m guessing that we are at the same altitude–sea level. Seattle is right next to the ocean :). What causes baked goods to deflate is that they rise too high during baking for the ingredients to maintain the structure. It’s often not a horrible thing–the taste is the same–but the look is disappointing. The blueberry honey muffins are one of my earlier recipes. They are more heavy than ones made with sugar–the honey provides less structure than does sugar and therefore provides less support for the loft of the muffins. For this recipe, I would recommend filling your muffin cups less full. This will give the muffins more support around the edges when they rise.

  27. says

    I was already loving this post and about to finish reading it and cut and paste the link to share on Facebook when I saw your mention of me. How extremely kind to include me, Jeanne! Thank you so very much! I love your analogy on substitutes and again am so honored to be included in your post.


  28. Michelle O says

    I LOVE this post! I get so sick of people complaining about a recipe having this or that in it and getting upset with the blogger . The recipes are created and shared with love. They are a gift and they cost nothing and yet people are always critical. I have A LOT of limitations, but I don’t complain if a recipe is not me perfect. I either substitute and know it is going to be different or I try to find another one.


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