Today I want to discuss substitutions in baking. I get lots of questions about how to substitute for various ingredients that people can’t or don’t want to use. I am happy to help when I can, but I wanted to have a little chat about what substitutes can and cannot do.
First and foremost: substitutes are what they sound like–they are substituting for the preferred item. So, most of the time they are not going to behave, taste, or feel EXACTLY like the preferred ingredients. If they did the same exact job in the same exact way, they wouldn’t be substitutes–they would be the preferred thing. This blog is already all about a big substitution: gluten-free flour used in the place of wheat flour for baking.
It takes time to develop a recipe and I go the extra mile to make sure that it is the best it can be. And part of this development process is choosing the ingredients carefully. Therefore, I do get frustrated when, for example, someone asks me for ideas on an egg substitute in a recipe full of eggs–and then that person comes back to me complaining that the egg substitute didn’t act or taste exactly like an egg. To which I say, “Of course not. It isn’t an egg.”
I also think that people tend to forget that there are many different approaches to gluten-free baking. My type of gluten-free baking has the goal of mimicking classic wheat baking. It’s not vegan, it’s not whole grain, it’s not sugar-free, it’s not paleo. All of these approaches to gluten-free baking are valid and good, but they are quite different from each other. So, if you use substitutes in my recipes with the goal of making them sugar-free or paleo or whole grain or dairy-free or whatever, you are not going to end up with a cookie that tastes the same as the one I created. In addition, the substitute ingredients you use may or may not behave the same or work well in the recipes.
Below I have listed the ingredients that I have used as substitutes for various ingredients. If the substitution is not listed, then I haven’t tried it and therefore, I can’t recommend for or against it. Also, please realize that you may need to do some experimentation on your own to find out what substitutes you like best.
Butter is an amazing ingredient in baking. It tastes good and has a good mouth-feel. Luckily, there are a zillion butter substitutes out there. Margarine is the most common substitute. My family can’t eat soy because Girlfriend is allergic to soy. Also, hydrogenated margarines are really (really) bad for you, so I avoid hydrogenated oils. Up until recently, my preferred butter substitute was Earth Balance Soy-Free Butter Spread. They changed their recipe in spring 2013 which changed the taste–and I’m not that keen on it.
I have been experimenting with using a half and half mixture of Earth Balance Soy-Free Butter Spread and Omega Nutrition Coconut Oil in my recipes. So far, I like the results. The taste is neutral, which I like. Up until now I haven’t been a fan of using coconut oil because it had a strong coconut taste. I don’t mind the taste, but coconut isn’t the taste that I want in all of my recipes. But, companies are now aware of this issue and are creating coconut oils that are much less “coconutty” than before.
Be aware that butter replacers are softer than butter at room temperature. This means that they melt at a lower temperature than butter. Therefore, if you use it for pie crust or something else you need to use cold fat for, you need to monitor the temperature a bit more. In addition, butter replacers have more water in them, so your pie crust will probably need less water.
It is usually best not to substitute a liquid oil for butter in a pastry recipe. Butter is solid at room temperature, so if a pastry recipe (like pie) calls for butter, you need to use something else that is also solid at room temperature. Do not use ghee in pie crust or any other pastry recipe–pastry needs a hard fat.
Use volume measurements to make substitutions, not weight: Because of the sometimes large differences in weight between butter, shortening, and butter replacers, I have found that it is best to substitute by volume versus weight.
Use the milk alternative of choice. Rice milk is fairly thin and watery, so it’s probably my least favorite milk to use in the place of cow milk. Currently, my favorite is coconut milk.
Place 4 cups of gluten-free milk alternative in a wide pan over low heat. Simmer for about 2 hours, stirring every so often, until it has reduced to 1 1/2 cups. Make sure not to burn the bottom–just barely simmering is what you want. Once reduced, remove from heat to cool before using. You can also do this ahead of time and store in a sealed container in the refrigerator. Be sure to shake/mix well before using.
For 1 cup of buttermilk: place 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar or distilled white vinegar into a cup measure and pour in your milk alternative until it reaches the 1 cup line. Whisk to combine. It’s OK if the milk curdles (separates)–it will still work well.
Use a non-dairy sour cream alternative. Or make your own–Google “non-dairy sour cream.” Or, use non-dairy yogurt.
Use a non-dairy cream cheese alternative. Or make your own–Google “non-dairy cream cheese.”
Use a non-dairy ricotta cheese alternative. Or make you own–Google “non-dairy ricotta cheese.”
Eggs are one of the most difficult things to replace in baking. Eggs provide structure to baked items in addition to binding. Without eggs, your baked items are going to be flatter than they would be with eggs. If you are sensitive to chicken eggs, I would recommend asking your doctor if s/he would recommend that you try duck eggs. Duck eggs are a terrific substitute for chicken eggs if you can tolerate them, and they are bigger than most chicken eggs–so they naturally replace the “extra-large egg” I recommend in most of my recipes.
If you cannot tolerate duck eggs, my next preferred overall egg substitute is ground flax seeds mixed with hot water. This creates a flax seed gel that acts as a binder and a moisture source in the place of eggs. For 1 extra-large egg, I recommend placing 1 TBL of ground flax seeds in a glass cup measure and add hot water until it reaches the 1/4 cup line. Whisk together and then let sit for 20 minutes in order to make a gel. Whisk frequently during this time to make sure the gel comes together. Then use this gel as you would the eggs–you can beat it with your mixer. If you are using this in a recipe that requires the ingredients to be cold, refrigerate before using.
This will NOT work for a meringue or for a sponge cake or pâte à choux (which rely on eggs for the leavening), but it will substitute for eggs in many regular baked items. The flax will provide a bit of a nutty flavor, so be prepared for that. I know there are many other substitutes, but this the one I use if I need an egg substitute.
If your recipe turns out flatter than you want it to be using the flax seed egg substitute, you can also add extra baking powder (not baking soda) to the recipe. I would add 1 teaspoon to start with and see if this helps with the rise. The resulting baked item is still not going to be quite as fluffy as it would have been if you used eggs.
New (10/6/15): I’ve been reading about “Aquafaba Meringue”, which is a meringue made from bean liquid (i.e., the liquid you get in a can of cooked beans like chickpeas). The title comes from “aqua” for water and “faba” for beans. It has gotten good reviews and folks have used it in buttercream recipes. I haven’t used it myself (i.e., don’t ask me questions about it b/c I haven’t done it), but if you would like to do your own research and testing, check it out: Trust Us You Can Use the Liquid From a Can of Beans to Make Dessert. There is even a recipe to use it to make a butter substitute.
I have already provided a gluten-free flour substitution for wheat flour in the form of my Jeanne’s Gluten-Free All-Purpose Flour Mix. And yet, people ask me for substitutes for the substitutes. Please be aware that my mix is truly one of the reasons my recipes work so well. And therefore, be aware that substituting flours for the flours in my mix will give the mix a different taste and a bit of a different texture. Please be aware that you should substitute by volume and not weight due to the differing densities of each flour. Here’s what I recommend if you must use substitutes:
Flour Mix Substitutions
1 1/4 cups Brown rice flour: substitute 1 1/4 cups Sorghum flour
1 1/4 cups White rice flour: substitute 1 1/4 cups Millet flour
1 cup Sweet rice (also know as glutinous rice) flour: substitute 1 cup Potato Flour (not starch)
1 cup Tapioca flour: substitute 1 cup Potato Starch (not flour)
NOTE: if you don’t like or do want to use the above substitutions, please don’t ask me for other ideas. These are what I recommend for substitutes.
Availability: all of these flours are available online. I get my flours from Bob’s Red Mill or from Authentic Foods. If these aren’t available in your town, you can order them online. These products are available on Amazon–and if you have Amazon Prime, the shipping is free. Many are also available at stores like Whole Foods, co-ops, health food stores, and increasingly, your neighborhood grocery store. It is imperative to get flours that are labelled “gluten-free.” If something isn’t labelled “gluten-free,” there is a chance that it is cross-contaminated with gluten. If you are celiac or wheat allergic, this is not acceptable.
Flours from bulk bins: flours from bulk bins may be cheaper than packaged flours, but there is a high probability that they are cross contaminated with gluten-containing items in the bulk bins. If you are celiac or wheat allergic, you should not use flour from bulk bins.
Asian stores: Many of the flours available at Asian stores aren’t labeled gluten-free. This means that they may or may not be cross-contaminated with gluten-containing ingredients. If you want to use them, you will need to contact the company directly to find out what the cross-contamination status is.
Substituting for sugar is tough for baking. Sugar does so many things in baking. It provides sweetness, of course. It also gives a good mouth-feel to your baked goods. It’s a preservative, so it allows for your baked items to stay good for a few days. It attracts water, which is why the tops of muffins get a little gummy after awhile. But it also keeps baked goods moist inside. I pretty much bake with sugar. I don’t really have any experience with sugar replacers like Splenda, so I can’t really recommend any. The chemistry of sugar replacers is complicated and creates a chain effect of issues throughout the baking process. Below is my experience with the following natural sugars:
Maple sugar is a nice alternative to cane sugar. It behaves the same as cane sugar, but will add a slight maple taste to baked items.
Palm sugar is another nice alternative to cane sugar. It comes in many forms. The granulated form can be used in baked goods.
Honey and agave are challenging to use in the place of sugar in baked goods. They are a bit sweeter than cane sugar and they are liquid. So, when you use them to substitute for cane sugar in a recipe, you need to adjust for sweetness and for liquidity–meaning you will have to reduce other liquids in your recipe.
I don’t really have any single ratio for how to use honey or agave as a substitute for sugar in recipes–you will need to do your own experimentation for it. Also, check the comments for this post: some of my readers have included their ideas for how to use these in the place of sugar.
How to use Splenda (or other sugar substitutes): I don’t bake with these kinds of substitutes. I would recommend using a Google search for this. See Peter Reinhart’s book below for info on how to use Splenda.
In a blender or a food processor, grind until powdery 1 1/2 cups of granulated sugar to 1 tablespoon of cornstarch or tapioca flour/starch.
Yeast is a really tough thing to substitute for. Because it is a living thing (a fungus of sorts), it has more staying power than any of the other leaveners (baking soda, baking powder, steam). So, I really do not recommend that you try to substitute for yeast unless you are allergic to it. I haven’t done any experiments with the suggestions in the following link (as of 1/25/14), but I trust this site and therefore think that their recommendations are worth a shot:
Please note that when using their suggestions for baking powder or baking soda, you do not need to let the bread rise. If you try these suggestions in my recipes, let me know how it goes.
Xanthan Gum and Other Gums and Pectin
Before posting a question or comment on xanthan gum or the other gluten replacers, please check out my post on Gluten-Replacers. Your issue might be addressed there.
I use xanthan gum as the “gluten-replacer” in my baking. I truly feel it is the best product available for creating baked items that taste and feel like their wheat counterparts. It not only has the binding and structure building properties of gluten, it is the most elastic of the gluten replacers. And you only need to use a tiny amount of it per cup of gluten-free flour (about a 1/4 teaspoon).
There is a lot of misinformation going around about xanthan gum. So much so that it is hard to talk to many people rationally about it. Xanthan gum is the resulting product when the xanthomanoas campetris bacteria is grown on a sugar medium. Often that sugar medium is corn, but it can also be tapioca or even wheat. According to the food scientists that I’ve spoken with, xanthan gum should not contain any of the growth medium–corn, tapioca, or wheat. It should be completely processed out. It’s kind of like when you eat an apple–if you were tested, you wouldn’t test as containing apple because your body has converted it into skin and organs and blood, etc. That said, if you are allergic to the growing medium of the xanthan gum (usually corn), then I would ask your doctor if s/he recommends that you eat it.
There is no truly good substitute for xanthan gum in the kind of baking I do (to mimic the taste and feel of wheat baking). Some people use guar gum (from the guar plant), but I find that it’s not quite elastic enough for my purposes.
Other folks use flax seeds, chia seeds, and psyllium husks as gluten substitutes. In my experience, these don’t behave in the way I want my gluten replacer to behave. And they add a significant taste to baked goods. In the experiments I’ve done with the seeds, they have created a good looking product, but the product is gummy (because you have to use a relatively large amount of the seeds for them to work well), and then after a day or two, the product is crumbly in a gummy way (yes, it’s weird).
Also, I can’t use flax, psyllium, or chia in my baking because they are all strong laxatives and you need to use a relatively large amount of them in baked goods (several tablespoons) to get the desired result. They wreak havoc on my body. As someone whose digestive system is already pretty loose (ahem), the last thing I need is more laxatives in my diet.
This is all to say that I don’t really have (at this point) any useful advice for substituting seeds for the gums. Please use the below resources for information on how to do that. In addition, I don’t have any advice on how to use pectin in the place of gums.
ADDED 12/13/12: I have heard that some people have tried to use pectin and gelatin as their gluten-replacers. These don’t work that well because they are binders but not really structure builders. And they aren’t elastic the way you need them to be. So, they are better as egg replacers from what I can tell.
Here are a few resources and blogs (in no particular order) to check out that can help you with many of the substitutions mentioned here. Please note that this list is not in any way exhaustive. Please let me know if you have other books and sites that you have found particularly helpful for the substitution process:
Elana Amsterdam: Elana’s Pantry
-Elana is a genius with baking dairy-free with almond flour, coconut flour, natural sugar substitutes, and no gums. She has written two cookbooks that are excellent:
Karen Morgan: Blackbird Bakery
-Karen is a whiz at gluten-free baking with guar gum. And her book is awesome:
Peter Reinhart and Denene Wallace
-Peter Reinhart is one of my baking gods. I have several of his wheat bread baking books (they are must-haves) and I have learned a lot from them. He is a wheat baker, but has found that gluten-free baking is a nice break for his body. I had the honor of meeting him one year at the International Association of Culinary Professionals conference after a baking session he taught. He co-wrote (with Denene Wallace) a gluten-free, grain-free, and sugar-free baking book. I have a copy of the book and it looks fabulous. I’m guessing it will become a classic on the grain-free and sugar-free baking shelf:
The following blogs are excellent sources for cooking and baking gluten-free and other other-allergens-free:
Silvana Nardone does a great job with dairy-free on top of gluten-free: Silvana’s Kitchen
Karina Allrich: Gluten-Free Goddess
Shirley Braden: Gluten-Free Easily
Heidi Kelly: Adventures of a Gluten-Free Mom
Nancy: The Sensitive Pantry
(As of 7/30/15)
(Clip art from: www.rookno17.com/2011/11/free-vintage-cooking-baking-clipart.html)