I’m getting more and more questions about how to make my bread recipes in bread machines. This is a tricky subject because all bread machines are different and seem to have different settings.  I have the Breadman TR875 (which is no longer available) and I can give you info on how to use that machine, but I don’t have info for how to do my recipes in other machines.

Therefore, I have an idea: I would like to invite you to help me help the other folks on this blog who want to use different bread machines.  The idea is: you use my Soft Sandwich Bread and/or my Multigrain Bread recipe(s) in your bread machine and  then report back your successes to us in the comments to this post. I will then add that information onto the chart below. I will also add columns if needed (for example, if your machine offers the options of different temperatures, etc.).  Hopefully, this will turn into a document that is valuable for all of us. I will also give credit to folks who provide information.

How to comment:  Include the bread recipe you used, any changes you made, the bread machine you used, the settings that worked on that bread machine (see the chart below for info), and the total time it takes in the machine.  For the purposes of this post, it’s best for folks only comment with successes–it’s not that helpful to know about stuff that didn’t work for the purposes of this post. :)

Here goes!

Jeanne's Soft Sandwich Bread in Bread Machines
Brand Setting Color Loaf Weight Total Time
* Breadman TR875 Basic Medium 1.5lb 3hrs 13mins
* Breadman TR444 white regular 1.5 lb (thx to Brenda B)
* Cuisinart CBK100 white gluten-free ? (thx to Tamra)
* Cuisinart Convection Breadmaker white gluten-free ? (thx to Beth)
* Chefmate TR7000 Reg Crust level 1 ? (thx to Carolyn)

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Jeanne's Multigrain Bread in Bread Machines
Brand Setting Color Loaf Weight Total Time
* Breadman TR875 GF Medium 1.5lb 1hr 17mins

NOTE: gluten-free breads don’t usually need more than one rise, but in my machine, there is no way to get a longer rise without using a cycle that has several rises and punch-downs.  So, that’s why the Basic setting works well for the Soft Sandwich Bread.  The Multigrain does well on the Gluten-free setting because it seems to need less time to rise and bake.

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Chocolate Chip Scones, Gluten-Free

by Jeanne on February 13, 2013

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAFor our family, Valentine’s Day comes after a pretty busy season.  My birthday and my father-in-law’s birthday are in December, along with Christmas.  Girlfriend’s birthday is in January (along with getting back into the school routine after the holiday break).  D’Ahub’s birthday is at the beginning of February (after the big push for Girlfriend’s birthday).  And, we are generally overwhelmed with the busy-ness of life (how did we get so busy?  I honestly don’t know).

As I thought about what to bake for Valentine’s, I kept in mind that d’Ahub likes scones–a lot–and he loves it when I make homemade scones.  So this year, to honor our busy schedules and to still indulge in a bit of baked treat, I decided to develop a quick and easy recipe for chocolate chip scones that you can mix up and bake in less than 40 minutes from start to finish.   In addition, the dough can be rolled and cut into cute heart shapes or you can just shape it into a disk and cut it into triangles.  Finally, you can prepare the scones right up until the baking stage, place them on a baking sheet, cover well with a piece of plastic wrap, and place in the refrigerator the night before you want to bake them.  This means you can then pop them into the oven in the morning and have fresh scones for breakfast!

Happy Valentine’s Day!  Enjoy with the sweeties in your life.

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Happy Mardi Gras!

by Jeanne on February 12, 2013

Mardi Gras mask

I wanted to wish folks a happy Mardi Gras (or “Fat Tuesday”)!  As you may know, in certain Christian traditions, today is the last day to get in some out-and-out pleasure–including feasting and partying–before the season of Lent–which starts tomorrow with Ash Wednesday.

You might want to make gluten-free King Cake for your celebration tonight!  And don’t forget the feve–the bean or the figurine that you bake into the cake for one of your lucky guests to find in their slice of cake.  Whoever finds it tonight is the King or Queen of the evening and is responsible for making the cake next year!  Enjoy!

(image from: freeclipartstore.com/CA%20Mardi%20Gras%20023.gif)

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NOTE:  I created a table at the end of the post with info on various company’s xanthan gums and their growing medium.  You will be surprised to find that not all of them are grown on corn.

As you know, gluten-free baking is challenging mostly because we can’t use a flour that contains gluten, that magical protein that has many qualities that are difficult to replicate. Gluten performs four primary functions in baking in addition to a couple other functions:

First, it is a binder—it holds baked items together.

Second, it provides structure. This works in tandem with the binding function—it serves as the tent pole structure that starches adhere to and create the tent covering for leaveners to work on and push on to create the loft.

And third, it has elasticity. It can be stretched and still hold together.  And gluten is a champ in terms of elasticity because not only can it be stretched, it is malleable. It can be formed into shapes that stay in shape.  This is why you can do things like form a wheat dough into a round loaf of bread on a cookie sheet and it will maintain its round shape during the rising and baking process.

Gluten also has a function in moisture retention in a baked item, which helps with prolonging the shelf-life of the baked item.  This is why gluten-free items tend to go stale more quickly than gluten-containing ones.

In addition, wheat flour contains natural gums, which help facilitate all of the tasks gluten does. Without gluten and the gums, baked goods are flat, crumbly, dry, and as heavy as hockey pucks.  And this is what gluten-free baked items are like when nothing is added to make up for the lack of gluten and gums.

This is why gluten-free baking requires the use of what I call “gluten-replacers.” In order to get baked items that behave in ways we want them to, we need to add something to mimic gluten/gums properties.  Currently, there are three primary gluten-replacers used in gluten-free baking: xanthan gum, guar gum, and ground seeds like psyillium, flax, and chia. And, while they all are used as gluten-replacers, they don’t behave in the same ways.  They each are better or worse at particular jobs.  Below is a quick rundown of how each works in gluten-free baking.

Xanthan gum is the product created from the fermentation of the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris in a sugar solution.  In my opinion, xanthan gum is the one that behaves most like gluten. It’s not perfect, but I think it’s the best that we have currently.  It has excellent binding and structure-building capabilities. And it is pretty good in terms of elasticity. It creates baked items that do not have a taste or gumminess that can be attributed to the gum. And for most baking recipes you only need to use about ¼ teaspoon of xanthan gum per cup of flour. After over 12 years of baking and researching gluten-free baking, I have come to prefer xanthan gum for the type of gluten-free baking I do–that which mimics its wheat counterparts and tastes like I remember wheat baked items to taste. And I do this by using classic techniques and ingredients that behave in a classic way.

Xanthan gum has a shelf life.  I have found that if I use it past the date on the package, it doesn’t work as well.  So, be aware of the expiration date and don’t use old xanthan gum.

Guar gum is made from the guar bean plant.   It is pretty good at binding and structure-building. But it is much less elastic than xanthan gum.  The image that comes to mind for me when I use guar gum is that of old chewing gum.  Old gum is pretty hard to chew and is not very elastic.  It’s good in a pinch, but it’s not great and it’s not my first choice.  When I use it, I use the same amount of guar gum that I use of xanthan gum per cup of flour–about 1/4 teaspoon.  But, it never feels like that’s the correct amount for everything.  For me, it requires more tweaking than I’m interested in doing of each thing in which it’s used in order to get it to work well. That said, if you are interested in using guar gum in your baking, check out my pal Karen’s site, Blackbird Bakery and book, Blackbird Bakery Gluten-Free.  She is a wiz at delicious gluten-free baking with guar gum.

I’m not sure if guar gum has a limited shelf life, but I’m assuming it does since it is made from beans.

There are some gluten-free bakers, including Carol Fenster–one of my gluten-free idols–who use both xanthan gum and guar gum in tandem.  In a nutshell, they feel that xanthan gum provides good structure while guar gum provides a “fluffy” factor.  I haven’t experimented with using both of them, but you might want to if this is of interest to you.

At first glance, various combinations of psyllium, chia, and flax seeds seem to be the holy grail of gluten-replacers, although you do have to use a lot (several tablespoons in a recipe). They are good at binding and seem to be good at structure building. And, at first, they appear to be excellent in terms of elasticity. I have made breads with the seeds that can be kneaded (although kneading gluten-free bread isn’t necessary because there is no gluten to develop) and shaped by hand. And they rise and bake up to look just like a wheat loaf. But, where they fail is in the end product.  First, baked items using seeds always has a taste of the seeds (which isn’t necessarily horrible, it’s just not what I want).  Also, there is an undertone (or overtone) of gumminess in the mouth feel, which I find to be unpleasant. Finally, after a day or two, the baked item crumbles in a funky way—it separates into chunks of gummy crumbles. Therefore, the seeds produce baked items that look good but that do not taste or feel like I want baked items to taste or feel. This is why I don’t use the seeds as gluten-replacers.  I do, however, use them as egg replacers, where I think they do a great job.

Added 2/28/13: There is also a product on the market from Orgran called “Gluten Substitute.”  Its ingredients (with my comments in []):

“Rice flour, Maize [corn] starch, Pea flour, Vegetable derived stabilisers & Cellulose: Methylcellulose [dietary fiber, mainly from cotton and wood], Carboxymethylcellulose [gum made chemically], Guar gum, Emulsifier: Vegetable derived mono and diglycerides of fatty acids.”

As far as I can tell without having used it, this is a mix of gums and other dietary fiber, plus some flours to hold it together.  It doesn’t look all that different from using a mix of xanthan gum and guar gum.  If anyone has experience with this, let me know.

Pectin/gelatin: There are also folks who have experimented with using pectin or gelatin as gluten replacers.  In my experience, they seem to have the same type of problems that the seeds have and therefore, I don’t use them.  That said, I haven’t done a lot of research with these.

So, let’s talk about xanthan gum. It’s what I use and what I feel works best in the baking I do. And, there is a lot of misinformation floating around about xanthan gum that I want to clear up.  Clearly, you need to choose what’s best for you, but I really want folks to make a truly informed choice.

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I thought I would create a spot that has all of the answers about my flour mix to help folks.  Also, check this post for more information about how I created my mix, how to make it, and how to store it.

Where can I find the flours (and the xanthan gum) in your mix?  Or, I can’t find one or more the flours in my hometown, where can I find them?

All of the flours are available online in the United States.  I will admit, I’m not clear why people are reluctant to order flours online.  Especially when they are not available in their local stores.  I do it all the time.  You can find them on Amazon, on Bob’s Red Mill, on Authentic Foods, and on a myriad of other sites.   A quick google search will locate them for you.  The one flour that folks seem to have the most trouble finding is sweet rice flour (also known as “glutinous rice flour).  I often find Koda Farms sweet rice flour in the “Ethnic” section of my regular grocery store in a small white box under the name of “Mochiko.”  Take a look there if you can’t find it in the gluten-free flours section.  You can also order it online from Amazon.  I have Amazon Prime which comes with free two day shipping–this makes shopping for baking supplies a breeze!

I recommend that you only use flours that are specifically labeled “gluten-free”.  Even though a flour might be gluten-free itself, the processing or packaging methods might cross-contaminate it and make it not gluten-free.  Therefore, read labels.

If you don’t want to order flours online and your local grocery store doesn’t carry them, then you need to do some research for your particular town.  You need to check your local stores to find out if they carry the flours.  My local grocery store (QFC, a Kroger market) in Seattle carries Bob’s Red Mill flours, so I can get all of the flours there.  In Seattle, I can also find them at Safeway, Whole Foods, Fred Meyer, Metropolitan Market, PCC (our local organic co-op), a few health food stores, and sometimes at Asian markets (although I don’t tend to buy flours at Asian markets because of the issue below).

Asian markets: The challenge with buying flours at Asian markets is that many of the brands aren’t labeled gluten-free.  If this is the case, you need to decide if you are willing to use it even though it might be cross-contaminated with gluten.  You can also contact the company (do a web search for their phone number or email address) and ask them directly: “Is your [x] flour gluten-free?”   This is what I would do–I can’t take the chance that something might be cross-contaminated with gluten.  But, you need to make your own decision–I can’t make that decision for you.

Flours from bulk bins: Buying flours from bulk bins is a dicey proposition due to cross contamination issues.  I personally do not buy flour from bulk bins because usually the bulk section also has wheat and other flours in the same area–and the possibility of cross contamination is high.

Can I grind my own flours?

Sure!  But be aware that unless you have a powerful grain grinder, you may or may not get the grain to the consistency you like.  If you like your flours very fine, then this might not be the answer for you and I would recommend that you stick with a commercial flour.  Again, it’s your call based on your preferences.  I don’t have a grain grinder (or even a blender) so I don’t do this.

I find some of the flours, particularly the brown rice flour, to be a bit gritty.  What can I do to solve this?

I would recommend using a finer grind brown rice flour.  Look for ones that say “extra-fine grind.”  Authentic Foods brown rice flour is extra-fine.  Also, you can experiment and take your brown rice flour and grind it up a bit more in your blender or food processor.

I can’t find or don’t like or am allergic to or don’t want to use [x] flour in your mix.  Can I use more of [y] flour?  

Again, the answer is, sure!  Why not?  My motto is: “try it and see!”  But be aware that I developed my mix with the different flours for a reason.  They aren’t in there willy-nilly.  So if you can’t find sweet rice flour (for example) and want to substitute more tapioca flour or you don’t like white rice flour and want to substitute more brown rice flour–it will change the mix.  It won’t be the mix I developed. You may or may not like it.  But, be aware that by changing things, you change things (if you know what I mean).

How to measure when substituting flours: Whenever you substitute flours, it is important to do so by volume measurement (cups) rather than weight.  I know this goes against everything everyone else is telling you, but trust me.  My experience is that substituting by weight does not work as well as substituting by volume.

What off-the-shelf mix do you recommend?  OR  I want to use a different gluten-free flour mix instead of yours.  Will it work in your recipes?

I get this first question a fair amount and the answer is: I recommend my mix.  I realize that it is not available pre-mixed on the shelf, but it truly is the best in my opinion.  That’s why I use it.  Believe me, if there was a mix that I loved that I wanted to use all the time, I would recommend it.  But, my mix is special.  I don’t get any money from you using my mix–and you make it yourself.  Also, since you make it yourself, it is cheaper for you.  If you really want to use an off-the-shelf mix, check out the following answer.

The answer to the second question is: it depends.

The two mixes I like best are Authentic Foods (gluten-free) MultiBlend (this already has xanthan gum in it) and King Arthur’s Gluten-Free Flour mix (be aware that you need to add 1/4 teaspoon of xanthan gum per cup of flour for the King Arthur blend).  These two will behave most like my mix.

One thing to be aware of is that some mixes don’t contain a gluten-replacer (like xanthan gum).  If your mix doesn’t, then add 1/4 teaspoon of xanthan gum per cup of flour to the other mix.  Also, other mixes may or may not taste all that great or they may feel gritty.  They may have more whole grains than mine does, which will make them heavy and gritty.  If the mix contains bean flour, the resulting baked item will have a bean taste–which I’m not that keen on.  You need to do your own experimenting and see if you like the results for mixes that aren’t mine or aren’t the 2 I recommend above.

How to measure when substituting flours: Whenever you substitute flours, it is important to do so by volume measurement (cups) rather than weight.  I know this goes against everything everyone else is telling you, but trust me.  My experience is that substituting by weight does not work as well as substituting by volume.

 

I found or I like to use [x] gluten-free flour and wondered if it would work in your mix?

The answer is: it depends.  It won’t probably work like the original flours.  But, it may or may not create a baked item that you like.  Chances are I haven’t tried it–so my answer (as always) is to for you to try it and see what happens.  And then let me know. :)  I love the hear how people’s experiments are going.

 

I can’t/don’t want to eat starch–do you have ideas for starch-free flours?

This is a hard one.  One of the key reasons baked goods perform the way they do is because of starch.  Starch makes up about 80% of all purpose wheat flour and it makes up the same percentage in my gluten-free mix.  If you want to bake without starches, you need to be aware that your baked items will taste and perform quite differently from the way they will when you use my mix.  I don’t really have any ideas on how to go completely starch-free, but I do have suggestions for a “grain-free” alternate mix, below.

 

I don’t want to/can’t eat tapioca flour.  Or, tapioca flour tastes yucky to me.  What should I substitute?

One of the following:
-Potato starch (not potato flour–different thing)
-Arrowroot starch
-Cornstarch

Please substitute by volume, not by weight.  Each of these flours is a different weight per cup.

Please note that some people think they don’t like tapioca flour but it’s not the tapioca flour itself that is the problem–it’s tapioca flour that’s gone bad. Tapioca flour (same as starch) that has gone bad tastes bitter and metallic.  Normal tapioca flour has a very neutral taste.

Do you have a substitute mix that is rice-free?

Not really.  But, if you want to try the following, here is  what I recommend as a rice-free mix:
For the brown rice flour use:   1 1/4 cups sorghum flour
For the white rice flour us:      1 1/4 cups millet flour
For the tapioca flour use:         1 cup potato starch (not potato flour)
For the sweet rice flour use:     1 cup potato flour (not potato starch)

Note that you need to substitute cup for cup, not in weight measurements.  The weights of each flour are different from each other.

You may need to adjust the amount of liquid in your recipes when using this mix because it is heavier.  Experiment and see what works for you.

I am on a no-grain diet–what flours should I use as substitutes for the ones in your mix?

I recommend that you try the following no-grain adaptation of my mix:

1 1/4 cups Amaranth Flour
1 1/4 cups Quinoa Flour
1 cup Tapioca Flour (or potato starch–not potato flour)
1 cup Potato Flour (not potato starch)
2 scant tsp xanthan gum

Important note: The weights needed for each flour will correspond to the weight of that particular flour–not to the weight of the flours in my original mix (I will get the weights up soon).  You need to make the conversion on a cup-by-cup basis, not on a weight basis.  Please note that this is a denser mix than my rice mix so it will create heavier and denser baked goods.  But, try it and see what you think (and let me know about how things are going).  I’m still doing research on this (very slowly) so your feedback is helpful!

This mix will probably require that you increase the amount of liquid in your recipes.  Experiment to see what works the best.

Can I use nut flours in your mix?

This is a difficult one to answer.  Nut flours aren’t really flours.  They are ground up nuts.  So, they behave differently than actual flours.  Also, no matter what, they will provide a gritty texture (which isn’t necessarily bad) to your baking.  My husband, daughter, and I are all allergic to various nuts, so I stay away from these most of the time and I can’t really bake with these exclusively.  I think this particular topic is better addressed by folks who use them more often.  Please see this post for more info.

Can I use coconut flour in your mix or by itself?

I haven’t used coconut flour, so I can’t really answer questions about it.  I have heard the coconut flour absorbs a lot of moisture–so you usually need to add more liquid to recipes.

Can you recommend a substitute for xanthan gum?

I think xanthan gum does the best job.  But, I would recommend that you see this post for more on xanthan gum substitutions If you want to try substitutes for xanthan gum in my recipes–go ahead!  But right now, I can’t really provide much guidance.  I will try to do more research on this issue this year.  Also, be sure to let me know how your experiments are going!

Gluten-free flours and xanthan gum are so expensive!

Yes, it’s true.  Gluten-free flours are more expensive than wheat flour.  There are many reasons for this.  One of the main reasons is that gluten-free flours are still considered “speciality” items and they aren’t currently made in quantities that allow for lower pricing.  Also, in the United States, wheat is a subsidized crop–this means that the government pays the farmers to grow it–which allows the farmers to charge a lower price for their wheat.  Which eventually leads to a lower price for wheat flour on the market. Also, processing gluten-free flours is more expensive because the processors have to get their equipment and buildings certified gluten-free in order to avoid cross contamination–and this is quite expensive for them.

All of this said, my flour mix is much less expensive than you might think.

Below is a breakdown of the ingredients for my flour mix, including the number of batches it makes and the cost. Prices are from the Bob’s Red Mill website as of 1/2013.

*

Price of Ingredients for my Gluten-Free All Purpose Flour Mix
Brand Flour Size Price Batches it Makes
* Bob's Red Mill Brown Rice 24 oz $3.89 4
* Bob's Red Mill White Rice 24 oz $2.89 3
* Bob's Red Mill Tapioca 20 oz $3.59 4
* Bob's Red Mill Sweet Rice 24 oz $3.29 4
* Bob's Red Mill Xanthan Gum 8 oz $12.29 56

*

1 Batch of Jeanne's Gluten-Free All Purpose Flour Mix
Grams Oz Cups Price
* 660 23.25 4.5 $4.77 (w/o tax)

Please note that I pay the same price you pay for flours.  I don’t get any discounts and I haven’t found any magical place that has extremely cheap flours.  I just build the cost of these flours into my grocery budget.

Updated 5/1/14

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This one is gonna be awesome!  And it’s on Saturday, Feb. 2, 2012, 3-6pm, at the Intentional Table on Bainbridge Island.  More info here!

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Happy New Year 2013!

by Jeanne on January 1, 2013

Elf-New-Year-Card

I want to wish everyone a very Happy New Year!  I cannot wait to see what the upcoming months hold for all of us!  Cheers!

(Clip art from: webclipart.about.com/od/New_Year_Clip_Art/ss/Vintage-New-Year-Cards_3.htm)

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toast-booklaunchmediumWow!  What a year it has been for me.  Truly, this year has been the stuff of dreams and I can’t quite believe I’ve had the opportunities and experiences that I have had.  I am truly a lucky person who has been blessed with so much.

I plan to tell you more about everything, but as my final post of the year, I want to tell you about a special person who has enriched my life in ways I never dared to imagine.  Her name is Nancy Baggett and I am proud and thrilled to call her a friend and a mentor.

The story actually starts for me 20 years ago when I was in grad school (wow, I can’t believe that was 20 years ago).  I was at NYU and my dad and his family lived in Connecticut.  So, I would take the bus up to CT on a regular basis to hang out with them.  My stepmom was an avid cook and baker like me, so we spent many happy hours in the kitchen, hanging out, making food, and chatting.  One day she said she had gotten a new cookie cookbook and as far as she was concerned, it was the best cookie book out there.  Well, of course I had to get it.  The book was The International Cookie Cookbook, by Nancy Baggett.  And my stepmom was right—this book was a winner!  It immediately took pride of place in my tiny NYC kitchen and I turned to it whenever I needed to make cookies.

Later, when I moved to Seattle in 1990 to start my new position at a local university, I kept baking cookies.  And I roped in a new friend of mine, Carla, who also worked at the university, to bake with me.  I don’t remember how we started, but Carla and I developed a tradition of baking cookies each Christmas, using the recipe Nancy has in her book for Iced Sugar Cookies.  We spent hours and hours rolling out, cutting, baking, and decorating cookies.  To be honest, I have no memory of what we did with all of those cookies (other than eat them)—I think we each must have brought in our cookies to the university for our students to eat.  But, I remember so fondly the afternoons of sheer cookie baking bliss.

10 years later, I was diagnosed with gluten intolerance and had to start adapting wheat baking recipes to gluten-free.  Of course, one of the first books of recipes I adapted was Nancy’s book.   By this time, she had another cookie cookbook out, The All-American Cookie Book, which I also started adapting (she is a prolific writer–she also has several other, non-cookie cookbooks).  I couldn’t live without cookies—and especially, without Nancy’s recipes.   And when I switched my blog over to focus on gluten-free baking (instead of knitting and chickens), I posted my adaptations.  One day I posted an adaptation to her Jam-Filled Butter Cookies, from her first cookie book, which she mentioned were also known as Hussar’s Kisses in Hungary.  In my post, I wondered why they were called Hussar’s Kisses.  To my surprise and delight, Nancy sent me an email saying that she could never find why, either.  Wow!  One of my baking heroes actually commented on my site!  I couldn’t believe it!

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Merry Christmas 2012

by Jeanne on December 24, 2012

I want to wish everyone a very Merry Christmas!  This has been an amazing year for me and all of you are part of that!  Thank you so much for your support and friendship!

(video is in honor of the fact that this blog used be called Four Chickens–enjoy!)

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Hey Seattle folks!  Just wanted to let you know that apparently the shipment of my books did not arrive at City Kitchens in time for today’s event, so they have postponed it until Monday (December 17), 12-2pm.  So sorry for the inconvenience!  Please come by and say hi on Monday!

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